Listen to Coronavirus Patient Zero
Intensive research carried out during the 1990's (known as the "Iron Age of Oceanography") provided a wealth of new information and this title, written by acknowledged experts and reviewed by international specialists, provides the authoritative and comprehensive review of the subject area.<br> <br> A joint venture between SCOR and IUPAC, it expertly addresses the current state of knowledge of the biogeochemistry of iron in seawater and covers:<br> <br> * Chemical speciation<br> * Analytical techniques<br> * Transformation of iron<br> * It includes evidence for iron limitation of primary production of High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) areas in the ocean<br> * Structured into a series of chapters it has been reviewed by international specialists- SCOR (Scientific Committee for Ocean Research) and IUPAC (International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry)<br> * The final chapter summarises the conclusions of the book and discusses the priorities for future research<br> * Ideal for scientists studying the environmental impact of metals and their role in marine ecosystems; Marine Scientists and Oceanographers; Environmental Analytical Chemists
Two methods for the detection of important human pathogens, Cryptosporidium parvum and Helicobacter pylori, were investigated: a fiber optic biosensor, and real time PCR. The mechanism for specific detection in both methods is recognition of specific DNA sequences in the target organisms. The biosensor that was used, the Analyte 2000, was originally developed for the detection of chemicals. It utilizes a fiber optic wave guide that propagates an evanescent light wave of very specific wavelength. The light excites fluorescent molecules bound to the waveguide, but not in the bulk solution, which theoretically enhances signal while reducing background interference. Attempts to develop this system for the detection of DNA were not successful due to poor detection of the target molecules. An assay analogous to a sandwich immunoassay was designed for use on the Analyte 2000. Specific oligonucleotide probes were designed to bind to the waveguides via biotin-streptavidin interaction, and were used to capture the target DNA. Pure target DNA representing unique genes in the organisms were synthesized by PCR. Detection of captured DNA was then attempted using an oligonucleotide detection probe designed to bind to the target. Two detection systems were employed: an indirect signal amplification system based on biotin-tyramide deposition, or direct detection of fluorescent signal from Cy-5 molecules. In all experiments performed there was very little difference between the signal generated with or without the target molecules. Many experiments were conducted to attempt to identify reasons for the poor signal. Signal was only of any significance when target amplicons were internally labeled with Cy-5 by PCR. Real time PCR as a method to detect the pathogens was also investigated. Though the PCR technique itself is very rapid, DNA extraction and purification requires preparation time. Filtration of up to one liter of well water, followed by concentration and "cleaning" Helicobacter pylori cells by immunomagnetic separation, was used to detect H. pylori seeded in a water source. Following cell lysis, the extracted DNA could be used directly in conventional PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene to detect less than 265 cells per liter of water. DNA purification was not required for this level of detection. Initial studies to amplify lysed cells by real time PCR indicated that an incorrect product was made. When purified DNA was used for real time PCR, the correct product was produced from DNA representing as few as 100 cells. This publication can be purchased and downloaded via Pay Per View on Water Intelligence Online - click on the Pay Per View icon below
This book provides a detailed review of the modern theories dealing with the structure and properties of water. It also presents an analysis of the research on the effect of activated water on biological systems such as animals, microorganisms, and plants. The results of experiments on the influence of activated water on "pure" microbiological cultures and their natural associations are described, the studies being carried out under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions.The results demonstrate a significant influence of activated water on higher plants (vegetable crops), sterile plants, and callus tissues. It is shown that the activation of water under definite conditions gives rise to the appearance of very strong bactericidal properties: activated water inhibits the development of pathogenic microbiological cultures by tens and hundreds of times more strongly, and can be used for sterilization. In addition, a potent positive effect of activated water on the prevention and treatment of cancer in mice has been observed, and its efficacy compared to that of chemotherapy is discussed in the book.The information provided in this book is supported by intensive experimental data and developed theories. The research programs were conducted at the authors' laboratories in Ukraine and Russia as well as at research facilities located in the USA.
This book is an eclectic collection of poetry which has been influenced by the author's wide variety of interests ranging from spirituality and goddess based religions to rock climbing and mountaineering. As you read you will travel to other times and other places. Wield a sword with the Knights Templar or walk into the desert with a camel caravan following the ancient Spice Road. Make a wish, struggle up a mountain or take a ride on a magic carpet. Quiet reflections, Crusader battles, deserts, mountains and dark shadows of the past all combine to create a unique mystical, magical journey.